Articles on Accessibility in Higher Education or Professional Licensing

Kenneth S. Pope, Ph.D., ABPP

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Articles (with links to online versions, when available):

"Professional Licensing Issues: Title II of the ADA applied to State and Local Professional Licensing" by Lauren E. Chanatry. This article notes that "Discrimination by state governments regulating entry into and membership in licensed professions falls under ADA Title II. Title II provides that “no qualified individual with a disability shall, by reason of such disability, be excluded from participation in or be denied the benefits, services, programs, or activities of a public entity, or be subjected to discrimination by any such entity.”4 It further requires state and local government agencies to operate programs so that they are “readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities.

"Transition to Higher Education for Youth With Disabilities" by Lorraine E. Wolf & Sarah Baron Kroesser.  This chapter in Pediatric neuropsychology: Medical advances and lifespan outcomes edited by Baron & Rey-Casserly (Oxford University Press,2013) notes that "Advances in medical and critical care over the past two decades have resulted in enhanced survival (and concomitant quality of life) for many children with low-incidence and severe conditions (Plioplys, 2003). Children with very low birth weight, severe head trauma, neuromuscular and neurological disorders, childhood cancers, and heart disease, to name only a few, who may not have survived childhood previously are now considering college as a viable option. Elementary and secondary school districts have begun to understand how to model services, for example, for children in wheelchairs or those using augmented communication devices. Gains in special education services coupled with enhanced survivability have resulted in a nationwide increase in the number of college students with the types of conditions (Fairweather & Shaver, 1990) that are the focus of this volume."  However, "the The transition from comprehensive, often clinic-based, wraparound medical services for children to more fragmented options available to adults can be difficult for families dealing with a severe or chronic medical condition. They do not always understand that the transition from high school to higher education will be similar."  The authors focus on "areas that need to be considered by clinicians caring for college-bound students with severe and low-incidence disabilities in order to help them anticipate and adapt to their new environment."

"Americans with Disabilities Act and Professional Licensing" by Deborah Piltch, Jamie Katz, and Janine Valles. This article in the September-October, 1993, issue of the Mental & Physical Disability Law Reporter (pages 556-562) examines the responsibilities of professional licensing examiners under the ADA in regard to providing an individualized assessment of the applicant and providing reasonable accommodations.

Accommodations in Higher Education Under the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA): A No-Nonsense Guide for Clinicians, Educators, Administrators, and Lawyers edited by Michael Gordon and Shelby Kaiser.This book, published by Guilford (1998), contains the following chapters: Underpinnings; Educational Accommodations: A University Administrator's View; Test Accommodations: An Administrator's View; Legal Requirements for Clinical Evaluations; Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Language-Based Learning Disabilities; Mood and Anxiety Disorders;Physical Disabilities; Visual Disorders, Dysfunctions, and Disabilities; and Last Words.

"Auxiliary Aids and Services for Postsecondary Students with Disabilities: Higher Education's Obligations Under Section 504 and Title II of the ADA" by U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. This article contains the following sections: Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973; Postsecondary School Provision of Auxiliary Aids; Postsecondary Student Responsibilities; Examples of Auxiliary Aids;Effectiveness of Auxiliary Aids;Cost of Auxiliary Aids; Personal Aids and Services; Questions Commonly Asked by Postsecondary Schools and Their Students; and For More Information.

"Communication Demands of University Settings for Students Using Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC)" by Lynne M. Atanasoff, David McNaughton, Pamela S. Wolfe, and Janice Light, in volume 13, issue #2 of Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability (1998). This survey of college students who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) examined use of face-to-face, written, and distance communication techniques between the survey participants and their peers and instructors.

"Disability Simulations as a Teaching Tool: Some Ethical Issues and Implications" by G. Thomas Behler, Jr., in volume 10, issue #2 (1993) of Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability. This article discusses such issues as "(a) the importance of maximizing the authenticity of the simulation experience; (b) the need to confront situations in which the simulation experience leads to increased discouragement on the part of some student participants; (c) the necessity for faculty members to recognize and fulfill various obligations to students, to the host institution, and to the larger community if disability simulations are conducted as required course exercises; and (d) the need to convince students of the relevance of disability simulations to their own lives, and to the larger society."

Distance Education: Access Guidelines for Students with Disabilities from the Chancellor's Office, California Community College, developed by the High Tech Center Training Unit in collaboration with the Distance Education Accessibility Workgroup. Table of contents includes: Legal Requirements; Basic Requirements For Providing Access; Access Guidelines for Specific Modes of Distance Education Instructional Delivery; Print Media; Audio Conferencing; Video Conferencing/Video Transmission (Live); Video Transmission (Pre Recorded); World Wide Web; Instructional Software, Laser Video Disc, CD ROM, DVD; Trace Research & Development Center Accessibility Guidelines. . .

"Higher Education and Psychiatric Disabilities: National Survey of Campus Disability Services" by Mary Elizabeth Collins & Carol T. Mowbray in volume 75, #2 (2205) of American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. Among the findings of this study is that "although federal laws require higher education institutions to have staff assigned to address disability concerns, the extent to which schools and colleges are meaningfully implementing this mandate is extremely diverse. It should be an issue for all disability advocates to address this degree of heterogeneity, which is so extreme as to suggest that, in many locations, students with disabilities are not adequately served."

"Making Accommodations: The Legal World of Students with Disabilities" by Paul D. Grossman, in the November-December, 2001, issue of Academe: Journal of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP). "Before adoption of America’s antidiscrimination statutes related to disability, most institutions of higher education were conforming participants in a society that, by indifference, prejudice, or structure, excluded individuals with disabilities from nearly every aspect of human endeavor. . . . Several federal laws protect students with disabilities from discrimination by institutions of postsecondary education; the primary ones are Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504), which applies to all colleges that receive federal financial assistance, and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, which applies to three primary groups: employers; government entities, such as state universities; and private entities that serve the public. Those who see the connection between disability law and federal civil rights laws will find the path to understanding disability law a great deal easier to follow. . . . Section 504 and the ADA require that students with disabilities have equal access to information and to the avenues of communication, including Web sites operated by colleges, other Internet resources, distance education programs, and the like. . . . In construing the conditions under which communication is as effective as that provided to nondisabled persons, the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Civil Rights has held that the three basic components of effectiveness are timeliness of delivery, accuracy of the translation, and provision in a manner and medium appropriate to the significance of the message and the abilities of the individual with the disability."

Students with Disabilities Preparing for Postsecondary Education: Know Your Rights and Responsibilities by the U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. This online pamphlet, revised 2011, answers many specific questions (e.g., "Do I have to inform a postsecondary school that I have a disability?"; "What academic adjustments must a postsecondary school provide?"; "What can I do if I believe the school is discriminating against me?") and provides sources of additional information.

"Understanding the Policy Context for Supporting Students with Psychiatric Disabilities in Higher Education" By Mary Elizabeth Collins & Carol T. Mowbray, in volume 41, #4 (2005) of Community Mental Health Journal. This article presents a study whose "findings identify factors that facilitate and inhibit the development of policy and programs supportive of students with psychiatric disabilities. Facilitating factors include a strong community college system, progressive philosophy of the state mental health agency, and interest of consumers and the advocacy community. Inhibiting factors include political and budgetary uncertainty, competing priorities in the mental health system, emphasis on a medical rather than rehabilitative model, regulations of the VR system, and lukewarm enthusiasm of the advocacy community."


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